Table 2 Multivariate regression between human breast milk metabolite concentrations and infant growth.

Least-square regression models were applied to assess the correlation between milk metabolite concentrations and change in weight-for-length z score from birth to 1 month or 12 months of age. B, size effect estimate; CI, confidence interval; SAM, S-adenosylmethionine; SAH, S-adenosylhomocysteine; Met, methionine; Cysta, cystathionine; Bet, betaine; Cho, choline. Bold font indicates P < 0.05.

Cohort ICohort II
Weight-for-length z score 1 monthWeight-for-length z score 1 monthWeight-for-length z score 12 months
Adjusted*AdjustedAdjusted*AdjustedAdjusted*Adjusted
n = 34n = 32n = 109n = 109n = 107n = 107
B (CI 95%)PB (CI 95%)PB (CI 95%)PB (CI 95%)PB (CI 95%)PB (CI 95%)P
SAM0.09
(−1.08 to 1.25)
0.879−0.12
(−1.35 to 1.11)
0.8410.52
(−0.03 to 1.07)
0.0660.55
(0.01 to 1.10)
0.0470.07
(−0.39 to 0.53)
0.7650.01
(−0.45 to 0.48)
0.964
SAH−0.95
(−1.91 to 0.01)
0.053−0.88
(−1.86 to 0.10)
0.0770.10
(−0.20 to 0.39)
0.5250.12
(−0.17 to 0.42)
0.407−0.02
(−0.26 to 0.22)
0.848−0.06
(−0.31 to 0.18)
0.609
Met0.10
(−0.59 to 0.79)
0.7720.39
(−0.36 to 1.14)
0.298−0.57
(−0.87 to −0.26)
0.001−0.51
(−0.81 to −0.21)
0.001−0.22
(−0.47 to 0.04)
0.094−0.18
(−0.44 to 0.08)
0.182
Cysta−0.33
(−0.68 to 0.02)
0.061−0.35
(−0.71 to 0.02)
0.061−0.18
(−0.57 to 0.2)
0.341−0.22
(−0.59 to 0.16)
0.253−0.18
(−0.48 to 0.13)
0.258−0.17
(−0.48 to 0.14)
0.266
Bet−0.66
(−1.18 to −0.14)
0.015−0.60
(−1.14 to −0.07)
0.028−0.56
(−0.91 to −0.21)
0.002−0.47
(−0.83 to −0.11)
0.010−0.38
(−0.67 to −0.1)
0.009−0.34
(−0.64 to −0.04)
0.026
Cho−0.23
(−0.92 to 0.46)
0.503−0.26
(−1.03 to 0.51)
0.497−0.28
(−0.67 to 0.10)
0.148−0.23
(−0.61 to 0.15)
0.237−0.21
(−0.53 to 0.11)
0.190−0.17
(−0.49 to 0.15)
0.287

*Adjusted for gestational age and weight-for-length z score at birth.

†Adjusted for gestational age, weight-for-length z score at birth, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and mode of birth.