Table 1 Signatures of protection induced by CPS and RTS,S/AS01E identified from mathematical network models based on the transcriptional data.

Time pointAge groupAntigenSignature of
protection
Generalization
capability
Accuracy
CPS
PostimmunizationAdultsCSP/DMSOF2, CXCL10, and KL87.50%87.50%
AdultsPfRBC/uRBCHSPA8, CALR, and
CXCL16
70.83%70.83%
AdultsCSP/DMSO and PfRBC/uRBCF2RL2, IL-3RA, and
GNA11
81.25%93.75%
PreimmunizationAdultsCSP/DMSOCSF2, NFkBIE,
TNFRSF11B, and
ITGA2
87.50%100%
AdultsPfRBC/uRBCPTK2, TGF-β3, and
HSPA8
70.83%70.83%
AdultsCSP/DMSO and PfRBC/uRBCCACNA2D2,
CACNA1F, ITGB7,
ARHGDIB, and KCNB1
77.08%89.58%
Pre- and
postimmunization
AdultsCSP/DMSOIL-7, ADRA2B, and
F2RL2
89.58%93.75%
RTS,S/AS01E
PostimmunizationInfantsCSP/DMSOGNAT 3, SGK1, and
TLR4
80%86.67%
InfantsPfRBC/uRBCTLR4, P85B, and
SH2B2
82.69%88.46%
ChildrenCSP/DMSOERBB2, PRLR, and
FAK2
80.49%92.68%
ChildrenPfRBC/uRBCJAK2, NCAM1,
VCAM1, CNTFR, and
GNA11
80.65%100%
Infants and childrenCSP/DMSOITB1, CASP6, and IL-1879.29%83.57%
Infants and childrenPfRBC/uRBCM3K7, IL-3, FCG2A,
and CBLC
80%90%
ChildrenCSP/DMSO and PfRBC/uRBCGNAT3, SGK1, and
TLR4
81.94%84.72%
PreimmunizationChildrenPfRBC/uRBCTR10A, CCNE2,
ADA2A, SRC, and
IL-12B
79.49%100%
ChildrenCSP/DMSOTLR4, WASL, and P85B81.13%86.79%
ChildrenCSP/DMSO and PfRBC/uRBCTLR4, P85B, SH2B2,
MAP2K7, and IKKB
78.79%87.88%