Table 1 AKI episodes are a risk factor for the development of pRCC but not for ccRCC in humans.

Clinical characteristics of pRCC, ccRCC, and controls are described. Between-group comparisons (a) were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables or the chi-squared test for categorical variables. Binary logistic regression analysis (b) was used for the association between previous acute kidney injury (AKI) episodes (yes/no) and pRCC development adjusted for age, gender, preoperative chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes mellitus (DM). eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; OR, odds ratio; RCC, renal cell carcinoma; pRCC, papillary RCC; ccRCC, clear cell RCC; CI, confidence interval; y, yes; n, no; F, female; M, male. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± SD. P values ≤0.05 are indicated in bold.

pRCC
(n = 56)
Controls
(n = 101)
P (a)
Previous AKI
episodes
12/56 (21.4%)7/101 (6.9%)0.008
Age at surgery
(years)
65.3 ± 11.763.7 ± 9.90.184
Gender (male)47/56 (83.9%)65/101 (64.4%)0.009
Preoperative CKD
(eGFR <60)
10/56 (17.9%)11/101 (10.9%)0.219
DM8/56 (14.3%)14/101 (13.9%)0.942
Length of
follow-up
(years)
4.6 ± 2.84.3 ± 2.90.571
VariableOR(95% CI)P (b)
AKI (y/n)3.479(1.135–10.667)0.029
Age (years)0.979(0.947–1.012)0.213
Gender (M/F)2.907(1.250–6.761)0.013
CKD (y/n)1.093(0.377–3.163)0.870
DM (y/n)0.715(0.258–1.978)0.518
ccRCC
(n = 75)
Controls
(n = 101)
P (a)
Previous AKI
episodes
9/75 (12.0%)7/101 (6.9%)0.247
Age at surgery
(years)
66.6 ± 9.363.7 ± 9.90.047
Gender (male)48/75 (64.0%)65/101 (64.4%)0.961
Preoperative CKD
(eGFR <60)
12/75 (16.0%)11/101 (10.9%)0.320
DM11/75 (14.7%)14/101 (13.9%)0.880
Length of
follow-up
(years)
4.2 ± 2.24.3 ± 2.90.916
VariableOR(95% CI)P (b)
AKI (y/n)1.549(0.514–4.664)0.437
Age (years)0.971(0.939–1.004)0.085
Gender (M/F)0.945(0.516–1.852)0.945
CKD (y/n)1.202(0.463–3.115)0.706
DM (y/n)0.888(0.366–2.155)0.793