Table 1 Genetic and environmental determinants of the at-risk immune cluster for persistent asthma.

Logistic regression analyses of genetic and environmental risk determinants on children in the at-risk immune clusters, αβTCR TH2 + mixed, versus remaining children of the cohort. CI, confidence interval.

αβTCR TH2 + mixedRemainingαβTCR TH2 + mixed/remaining
OR [CI]P value
N169366
Child
  Sex, male, % (N)54% (91)49% (179)0.72 [0.46–1.13]0.15
  17q21, % (N)*28% (42)33% (108)0.88 [0.52–1.44]0.61
  Any airway bacteria at 1 month, % (N)38% (63)25% (89)1.87 [1.26–2.78]0.0020
Atopy
  Maternal asthma, % (N)35% (59)27% (100)1.43 [0.96–2.11]0.076
  Paternal asthma, % (N)27% (44)23% (81)1.24 [0.81–1.89]0.32
  Maternal sensitization, % (N)40% (67)35% (126)1.25 [0.85–1.81]0.25
  Paternal sensitization, % (N)51% (82)45% (156)1.27 [0.87–1.85]0.22
  Child sensitization, 6 or 18 months, % (N)8% (13)11% (38)0.70 [0.35–1.31]0.27
  Childhood eczema, 0–6 years, % (N)35% (59)30% (109)1.26 [0.86–1.86]0.24
  Leukotriene receptor antagonist, % (N)10% (11)5% (12)2.13 [0.90–5.02]0.084
  Inhaled corticosteroid treatment, % (N)23% (26)16% (41)1.52 [0.87–2.62]0.14
Pregnancy
  Smoking in pregnancy, % (N)5% (9)8% (31)0.61 [0.27–1.26]0.19
  Cat or dog in pregnancy, % (N)31% (52)33% (122)0.89 [0.60–1.31]0.56
  Antibiotics in pregnancy, % (N)40% (67)34% (125)1.26 [0.86–1.84]0.23
  Fish oil supplementation, % (N)51% (87)48% (175)1.16 [0.80–1.67]0.43
  Vitamin D supplementation, % (N)52% (80)49% (160)1.14 [0.77–1.67]0.51
Birth
  Term birth >37 weeks, % (N)98% (165)96% (351)1.76 [0.63–6.26]0.30
  Primiparity, % (N)41% (69)49% (178)0.73 [0.50–1.05]0.092
  APGAR score 5 min >9, % (N)97% (162)94% (341)1.90 [0.75–5.79]0.18
  Caesarean section, % (N)14% (22)19% (69)0.65 [0.38–1.08]0.10
  Season of birth, fall/winter, % (N)58% (98)55% (200)1.15 [0.79–1.66]0.47
  Maternal age at birth, years, mean (SD)32.7 (4.4)32.2 (4.2)1.03 [0.99–1.08]0.17

*% homozygous for the risk allele, variant RS2305480.

†Presence of Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus pneumoniae.

‡14 days up to sample date.