Table 2 Demographic and neuropsychological comparisons between TBI and healthy control groups, as well as between disabled TBI and good recovery TBI subgroups.

Independent sample Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test W and P values (P < 0.05 in bold) for comparisons between groups and subgroups. BIS, Barratt Impulsivity Scale; BVMT, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test; CRT, choice reaction time; PT, People’s Test; FrSBe, Frontal Systems Behavior; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score; HVLT, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test; LARS, Lille Apathy Rating Scale; RDI, Recognition Discrimination Index; RT, reaction time; WASI, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale for Intelligence; WTAR, Wechsler Test of Adult Reading.

Outcome measureTBI versus healthy participantsDisabled versus good recovery TBI subgroups
TBIControlsWPDisabled TBI
subgroup
Good
recovery TBI
subgroup
WP
means (±SD)means (±SD)means (±SD)means (±SD)
Age (years)49.7 (10.3)54.2 (12.1)800.1649.9 (10)49.3 (11.2)350.29
Time since
injury (years)
31.1 (7.6)32.9 (7.4)28.7 (7.5)66.50.39
Education
(years)
12.5 (3.6)11.5 (2.8)124.50.7311.5 (3.2)13.9 (3.8)33.50.15
Premorbid
intelligence
WTAR (scaled)101.4 (16.4)110.3 (10.8)76.50.1392.6 (16.1)113.1 (6.8)9.50.002
Cognitive
impairment
MMSE (current)27.8 (2.3)29.5 (0.9)57.50.01726.5 (2.3)29.6 (0.5)4<0.001
MMSE (change)−0.5 (2.3)−1.3 (2.4)1 (1.4)70.041
MMSE (change per year)−0.026
(0.131)
−0.073
(0.134)
0.058 (0.081)70.045
Logical
reasoning
WASI matrix reasoning22.7 (8.2)25.2 (7)870.4618.1 (7.3)28.9 (4.4)8.50.001
Processing
speed
Trail making test A (s)39.9 (20.6)28.9 (14.4)1530.07949.7 (22.9)27.9 (7.6)810.016
Trail making test B (s)106.8 (69.8)57.4 (18.3)1580.049140.8 (75.3)65.2 (30.6)810.016
Stroop combined baseline (s)50.8 (10.8)41.1 (8.5)1750.01752.7 (12.3)48.2 (8.6)670.38
CRT RT (ms)579 (121)512 (103)160.50.077645 (115)491 (53)940.003
Executive
function
Trail making test B-A (s)66.9 (56)28.5 (8.7)1450.1591.1 (63)37.3 (26.3)790.028
Stroop inhibition-switch(s)93 (48.7)65.3 (20.4)1640.056116.4 (52.7)61.9 (14.2)100<0.001
Stroop inhibition-switch
versus baseline (s)
71.4 (50.7)51.8 (18.9)1450.2594.6 (54.5)40.42 (21.2)960.002
FrSBe scale–executive;
current
42.2 (8.2)26.3 (5.7)181.5<0.00146 (8.2)37.1 (4.9)89.50.012
ApathyLARS−21.5 (10.1)−27.2 (6.3)1340.14−17.2 (10.7)−27.9 (4.5)820.009
FrSBe scale–apathy; current31.9 (9.6)21 (5.1)157.50.00534.3 (10.5)28.8 (7.8)710.24
Impulsivity/
disinhibition
BIS66.6 (15.8)58.1 (6.9)118.50.2972.9 (15)57.9 (13.2)750.039
FrSBe scale–disinhibition;
current
33.5 (10.3)24.3 (5.3)143.50.02836.1 (11.5)30.1 (7.7)70.50.25
Verbal memoryPT immediate recall18.3 (8.7)19.8 (8.2)1020.6116.4 (9.2)20.4 (7.8)39.50.32
PT delayed recall6.4 (3.8)7.3 (3.6)100.50.565.6 (3.9)7.6 (3.5)38.50.28
HVLT immediate recall21.2 (5.3)25.5 (4.7)630.03819.4 (4.9)23.7 (5)25.50.046
HVLT delayed recall6.3 (3.6)8.8 (2.5)65.50.0485.3 (3.9)7.7 (2.7)340.16
HVLT RDI9.2 (2.4)9.9 (2)970.478.7 (2.8)10 (1.5)400.33
Visual memoryPaired associates learning
(z-score)
−1.47 (0.81)−0.73 (0.92)660.043−1.79 (0.77)−1.03 (0.69)25.50.036
BVMT immediate recall16.2 (8.3)21.7 (5.5)630.03910.9 (3.7)23.3 (7.5)7<0.001
BVMT delayed recall6.8 (3.7)9.5 (1.4)64.50.0444.7 (3.1)9.6 (2.4)120.003
BVMT RDI4.9 (1.3)5.9 (0.3)67.50.0264.3 (1.4)5.9 (0.3)160.004
Visuospatial
ability
Feature match test (z-score)−1.46 (0.74)−1.19 (0.92)94.50.42−1.88 (0.69)−0.89 (0.31)6<0.001
Mood
disturbance
HADS-anxiety8 (6)3.9 (3.8)161.50.0699.9 (5.6)5.3 (5.7)80.50.063
HADS-depression4.5 (4.7)1.9 (2.5)1560.116.4 (5.1)1.8 (2.4)86.50.022