Table 1 Innovative strategies address challenges in developing next-generation conformable and implantable bioelectronic interfaces.

Conformable microfabricationHermetic encapsulationSystem-level integrationRegulatory adaptation
Manufacturing standards for thin-film
devices on conformable carrier
Multilayered stacks of polymer/
inorganic barriers
Compact wireless transmission
Policy changes for approval of
tailor-made medical devices
Hybrid integration of rigid
complementary metal-oxide-
semiconductor (CMOS) components
and polymer-based transducers
Deposition processes, interface, and
barrier properties of inorganic films
such as silicon carbide (SiC) and
hafnium oxide (HfO2)
Power management (new battery
technology, battery life/heating)
New mechanical norms for
conformable devices
Fabrication of soft active electronic
components (diodes, transistors,
light-emitting diodes, and
combinations thereof)
Implantable plug-and-play
Complete kits including tools for
clinical use