Table 1 Differences in metabolite concentrations between GF, PF, and C-GF mice.

s, singlet; d, doublet; dd, doublet of doublets; t, triplet; q, quartet; m, multiplet.

TissueMetabolites lower in
GF mice
Chemical shift (ppm)Metabolites higher in
GF mice
Chemical shift (ppm)
Skeletal muscleUnknown3.11 (s)Glycine3.57 (s)
Alanine1.48 (d)
LiverUnknown3.11 (s)Taurine3.43 (t); 3.27 (t)
Glutamine2.15(m)Taurocholic acid0.70 (s)
2.44 (m)
Betaine3.27 (s)Hypotaurine2.65 (t)
3.90 (s)
Alanine1.48 (d)Dimethylamine2.72 (s)
Leucine0.96 (t)Sarcosine2.74(s)
Valine0.99 (d)
1.05 (d)
Pyruvate2.39 (s)
Glutathione (oxidized)2.55 (m)
2.95 (dd)
4.57 (q)
Glutamate2.35 (m)
Glycerophosphoryl choline3.23(s)
4.32(m)
SerumUnknown3.11 (s)Glycine3.57 (s)
3-hydroxybutyrate2.39 (dd)Lipid CH2─C═O2.22 (m)
2.31 (dd)
1.2 (d)
Trimethylamine2.88 (s)Lipid VLDL CH2─CH2─CO2.03 (m)
1.57 (m)
1.29 (m)
Valine0.99 (d)
1.05 (d)
Choline3.21 (s)Lipid VLDL CH3─CH2─CH2C═0.87 (t)
Pyruvate2.39 (s)Lipid CH3CH2(CH2)n1.26 (m)
Acetate1.91 (s)
Dimethylglycine2.92 (s)
Lipid LDL (CH2)n1.25 (m)
Lipid LDL CH3─(CH2)n0.84 (t)