Table 2 Clinical signs and therapeutic interventions during AHRs, according to severity grade.

Values are expressed as percentages or as median [25th to 75th percentile] when appropriate. The numbers of observations and missing values varied according to the numeric value analyzed: maximum heart rate (HR) (43/17), minimum HR (14/6), minimum PAS (70/21), minimum SpO2 (24/9), and minimum end-tidal CO2 (etCO2) (33/7). ICU, intensive care unit; IV, intravenous; NA, not available; SAP, systolic arterial pressure; SpO2, photoplethysmographic oxygen saturation.

Clinical/hemodynamic signsSevere (n = 43)Mild (n = 43)P
Erythema (%)65790.2*
Tachycardia (%)58440.3*
Maximum HR (min−1)130[125;133]127[111;136]0.3
Bradycardia (%)2670.04*
Minimum HR (min−1)42[40;49]52[51;54]0.1
Arrhythmia (%)2320.007*
Arterial hypotension (%)10063<0.0001*
Minimum SAP value (mmHg)50[43;60]65[58;73]0.01
Bronchospasm (%)37280.5*
Hypoxemia (%)497<0.0001*
Minimum SpO2 (%)82[82;88]91[90;91]0.1
Hypocapnia (%)6314<0.0001*
Minimum etCO2 (mmHg)18[13;21]26[24;29]0.002
Cardiac arrest (%)2300.001*
Delay of resuscitation
Delay between anesthesia induction and first signs of the reaction (min)5[5;16]5.5[5;10]0.6
Delay between first signs of the reaction and treatment initiation (min)1[0;2]0[0;0.75]0.008
Therapeutic interventions
Epinephrine IV alone (%)350<0.0001*
Cumulative doses of epinephrine (mg)2.5[1;6.9]NANA
Norepinephrine IV alone (%)500.5*
Cumulative doses of norepinephrine IV (mg)1.75[1.62;1.87]NANA
Epinephrine IV and norepinephrine IV (%)1200.06*
Cumulative doses of epinephrine IV (mg)5[2;5.4]NANA
Ephedrine and/or phenylephrine IV alone (%)044<0.0001*
Ephedrine and/or phenylephrine IV, then epinephrine, and/or norepinephrine IV (%)492<0.0001*
Cumulative doses of epinephrine IV (mg)0.6[0.3;4.1]0.1NA
Atropine IV (%)1250.4*
Cumulative doses of atropine IV (mg)1[1;1]1[1;1]NA
b2-Adrenergic agonist IV/inhaled (%)14121*
Glucocorticoids (%)23231*
Histamine receptor antagonists (%)021*
Fluid resuscitation with crystalloids (%)70420.02*
Cumulative volume of crystalloids (liters)1[1;2]0.87[0.5;1.37]0.03
Fluid resuscitation with colloids (%)8390.008*
Cumulative volume of colloids (liters)0.5[0.5;1]0.65[0.5;0.85]0.8
Surgery canceled (%)8119<0.0001*
Admission to ICU (%)7626<0.0001*

*Fisher’s exact test.

†Mann-Whitney U test.