Table 1 CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to malaria antigens associated with protection from childhood malaria.

PY, person years of observation.

Incidence of clinical malaria through 24 months of age
% Pf SE-specific
CFSElow CD4+ T cells
nEpisodesPYIncidenceIRR (95% CI)P value
Low (<15%)111621.00.76Reference
Intermediate (15 to 30%)353662.50.580.79 (0.30–2.06)0.63
High (≥30%)271048.30.210.28 (0.09–0.84)0.02
Time to first episode of malaria after birth
nCumulative risk (95% CI)HR (95% CI)P value
Low (<15%)1179.6% (51.8–96.8%)Reference
Intermediate (15 to 30%)3541.1% (26.3–60.1%)0.40 (0.16–0.98)0.05
High (≥30%)2733.8% (18.5–56.5%)0.28 (0.11–0.77)0.01
Detection of malaria parasites at routine monthly visits between 2 and 24 months of age*
n/N%PRR (95% CI)P value
Low (<15%)25/2699.29%Reference
Intermediate (15 to 30%)56/7977.03%0.80 (0.33–1.93)0.63
High (≥30%)19/6203.06%0.33 (0.13–0.89)0.03

*By blood smear and/or LAMP.