Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects (n = 46).

CM, cerebral malaria; CH, cerebral malaria plus hyperlactatemia; HL, hyperlactatemia (CM, CH, and HL are all subgroups of severe malaria); UM, uncomplicated malaria; PfHRP2, P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2; Hb, hemoglobin concentration; WBC, white blood cell count. Data are median [interquartile range (IQR)], and superscripts indicate the number of subjects with data for each variable if less than the total. P for Kruskal-Wallis test comparing all groups (df = 3) except for sex where P is for Fisher’s exact test. Leukocyte population numbers and proportions were measured by a clinical hematology analyzer.

CM (n = 5)CH (n = 12)HL (n = 8)UM (n = 21)P
Age (years)4.3 (4.2–4.8)4.9 (3.6–5.7)5.0 (3.8–8.3)6.0 (4.0–9.0)0.51
Male (%)3 (60)5 (42)7 (88)13 (62)0.24
Parasitemia (%)8.3 (5.3–9.0)412.6 (9.4–19.0)9.6 (1.8–12.2)5.1 (3.8–7.0)0.008
Parasites (×105/μl)2.3 (1.7–3.1)33.5 (2.7–8.4)112.8 (0.7–5.0)2.3 (1.6–3.2)0.062
Clones2 (1.5–2.5)42 (1–2)91 (1–2)52 (1–2)150.67
PfHRP2 (ng/ml)202 (93–528)4763 (374–1750)470 (164–2214)163 (128–227)0.004
Duration of illness (days)2.0 (1.7–3.0)2.0 (2.0–2.5)2.0 (2.0–3.5)2.7 (2.0–3.0)0.22
Hb (g/dl)9.7 (7.4–10.4)9.3 (7.8–11.5)119.1 (7.4–11.0)10.8 (9.9–12.1)0.12
WBC (×109/liter)9.8 (8.2–12.9)48.8 (6.4–9.4)1115.3 (7.9–16.8)79.5 (7.7–11.8)0.41
Platelets (×109/liter)41 (40–82)436 (23–65)1159 (33–132)122 (96–132)0.013
Lymphocytes (×109/liter)2.7 (2.1–3.6)42.9 (2.4–3.6)113.1 (1.8–5.2)72.4 (1.4–3.1)200.57
Lymphocyte (%)29.8 (20.6–37.3)437.8 (29.9–49.9)1122.3 (14.7–37.3)723.9 (16.0–33.5)200.087
Neutrophils (×109/liter)6.4 (4.0–8.7)44.0 (2.9–4.3)106.5 (5.8–10.4)77.0 (5.3–7.7)200.045
Neutrophil (%)55.1 (49.0–69.6)448.3 (39.6–56.2)1061.5 (55.6–74.9)768.0 (59.9–79.6)200.016
Monocytes (×109/liter)0.6 (0.6–0.7)40.6 (0.5–0.9)100.8 (0.6–1.3)70.7 (0.4–0.9)200.58
Monocyte (%)7.1 (6.0–7.7)47.8 (6.8–8.6)106.6 (5.1–7.8)76.7 (4.8–7.3)200.12