Table 2 Generating cardiac cell subtypes from PSCs.

hESCs, human embryonic stem cells; mESCs, mouse embryonic stem cells; hiPSCs, human induced pluripotent stem cells; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; BMP4, bone morphogen protein 4; TGF-β, transcription growth factor–β; WNT, wingless/integrated; cAMP, cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate.

Cardiac subtypeSourceApproach
Sinoatrial
node–like cells
mESCsOverexpression of Tbx3, overexpression of Shox2
hESCs/hiPSCsInhibition of FGF/BMP signaling in cardiac progenitor cells generated an NKX2.5/Podoplanin+ population
that gave rise to sinoatrial node–like cells upon differentiation
hESCs/hiPSCsActivation of BMP/retinoic acid signaling plus inhibition of FGF, TGF-β, and WNT signaling
Atrial-like cellsmESCs/hESCsActivation of retinoic acid signaling
mESCsGremlin-based inhibition of BMP signaling
Ventricular-like cellshESCsInhibition of retinoic acid signaling
hiPSCsInhibition of WNT signaling
Purkinje cellsmESCsActivation of cAMP signaling