Table 1 Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of all analyzed patients.

Demographics and clinical characteristics are defined according to American College of Rheumatology criteria for systemic sclerosis. mRSS, modified Rodnan skin score; HAQ, health assessment questionnaire; EDAI, European disease activity index; CRP, complement reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; FVC, forced vital capacity; anti-Scl 70, anti-topoisomerase 1 antibody.

Baseline characteristics (n = 28)
Mean age (years) ±
SEM
47.3 ± 9.74
n%
Sex (n = 28)
  Female1968
Ethnicity (n = 28)
  Asian13.5
  Black310.7
  White2485.7
Scleroderma subtype (n = 28)
  Diffuse2485.7
  Limited414.3
Median disease duration
in years (range)
4.7 (0.3–16)
Sclerosis activity score (n = 28)
  mRSS23.0 ± 8.45
  HAQ1.09 ± 0.83
  EDAI4.59 ± 2.07
Disease manifestation
  Raynaud’s
phenomenon (n = 28)
28100
  Vascular digital
ulcers (n = 28)
1553.6
  Esophageal
(dysphagia and
reflux) (n = 28)
2485.7
  Elevated acute-phase
reactants (ESR and
CRP) (n = 24)
1458.3
  Cardiopulmonary
(fibrosis) plain x-ray
(n = 28)
828.6
  Restrictive defect
(FVC <60%
predicted) (n = 28)
414.3
Positive autoantibodies
  Anti–Scl-70 (n = 25)1248.0
  Anti-nuclear (n = 24)2187.5
  Anti-cardiolipin (n = 11)19.09
Medication (n = 15)
  Immunosuppressant
(prednisone,
azathioprine,
mycophenolate
mofetil, or
methotrexate)
15100