Table 4 Results of the multivariable analysis (Cox proportional hazard model) to examine the relationship between the risk of HIV acquisition for females and the three male PVL measures.

The PVL measures were derived from the HIV-positive males (models A1 to A3) and the HIV-positive and HIV-negative males (models B1 to B3) of a population-based survey. The full output is given in tables S3 and S5. Model 1 shows the unadjusted HRs for the PVL measures; model 2 shows these HRs after adjusting for age, sex, urban status, marital status, number of sexual partners in the last year, and household wealth; model 3 shows these HRs after adjusting for the model 2 covariates as well as HIV prevalence.

HIV acquisition risk for femalesGeometric mean viral load*Prevalence detectable
Community transmission
HR(95% CI)PHR(95% CI)PHR(95% CI)P
Population-based: HIV-positive males only
  Model A1: Unadjusted HR1.000(1.000–1.000)0.3931.000(0.994–1.006)0.9830.999(0.987–1.012)0.922
  Model A2: Adjusted HR without HIV prevalence1.000(1.000–1.000)0.8361.001(0.995–1.008)0.6621.003(0.991–1.016)0.599
  Model A3: Adjusted HR with HIV prevalence1.000(1.000–1.000)0.4871.003(0.996–1.011)0.3931.004(0.990–1.018)0.563
Population-based: HIV-positive and HIV-negative males
  Model B1: Unadjusted HR1.066(1.021–1.113)0.0041.039(1.016–1.063)0.0011.100(1.033–1.171)0.003
  Model B2: Adjusted HR without HIV prevalence1.056(1.006–1.108)0.0271.039(1.013–1.066)0.0031.095(1.025–1.171)0.007
  Model B3: Adjusted HR with HIV prevalence1.160(1.058–1.271)0.0011.061(1.020–1.104)0.0041.110(1.015–1.214)0.022

*For a one unit increase in geometric mean viral load.

†For a 1% increase in the prevalence of detectable viremia.

‡For a predicted one transmission event increase per 100 sexual contacts.