Table 5 Results of the multivariable analysis (Cox proportional hazard model) to examine the relationship between the risk of HIV acquisition for males and the three female PVL measures.

The PVL measures were derived from the HIV-positive females (models A1 to A3) and the HIV-positive and HIV-negative females (models B1 to B3) of a population-based survey. The full output is given in tables S4 and S6. Model 1 shows the unadjusted HRs for the PVL measures; model 2 shows these HRs after adjusting for age, sex, urban status, marital status, number of sexual partners in the last year, and household wealth; model 3 shows these HRs after adjusting for the model 2 covariates as well as HIV prevalence.

HIV acquisition risk for malesGeometric mean viral load*Prevalence detectable
Community transmission
HR(95% CI)PHR(95% CI)PHR(95% CI)P
Population-based: HIV-positive females only
  Model A1: Unadjusted HR1.000(1.000–1.000)0.1760.985(0.965–1.007)0.1740.977(0.920–1.037)0.439
  Model A2: Adjusted HR without HIV prevalence1.000(1.000–1.000)0.9890.997(0.972–1.021)0.7821.010(0.943–1.082)0.773
  Model A3: Adjusted HR with HIV prevalence1.000(1.000–1.000)0.9850.997(0.971–1.024)0.8091.008(0.933–1.088)0.845
Population-based: HIV-positive and HIV-negative females
  Model B1: Unadjusted HR1.057(1.030–1.084)<0.0011.109(1.052–1.170)<0.0011.405(1.174–1.683)<0.001
  Model B2: Adjusted HR without HIV prevalence1.053(1.009–1.099)0.0181.077(1.004–1.155)0.0391.270(1.020–1.581)0.032
  Model B3: Adjusted HR with HIV prevalence1.081(1.009–1.158)0.0281.106(1.001–1.221)0.0481.452(1.057–1.997)0.021

*For a one unit increase in geometric mean viral load.

†For a 1% increase in the prevalence of detectable viremia.

‡For a predicted one transmission event increase per 100 sexual contacts.