Table 1. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients.

Continuous variables (age, body mass index, and CA19-9 concentration) are presented as mean (SD); categorical variables (male gender, personal history of diabetes, and stage of disease) are presented as frequency (%). IPMN, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm; PNET, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.

Adenocarcinoma stage I/IIAdenocarcinoma stage III/IVControlsIPMN, no
adenocarcinoma
PNETPancreatitis
Discovery phase 1n = 6n = 4n = 10
Age56.8 (7.5)65.0 (13.0)62.2 (15.4)
Male gender4 (66.7%)2 (50.0%)5 (50.0%)
Body mass index (kg/m2)31.2 (8.6)26.3 (5.4)26.0 (3.9)
Personal history of diabetes1 (16.7%)02 (20.0%)
CA19-920770.8 (47060.9)111224.0 (217927.2)12.0 (6.4)
Stage of disease
  II1 (16.7%)
  IIA1 (16.7%)
  IIB4 (66.7%)
  III1 (25.0%)
  IV3 (75.0%)
Validation phase 2an = 58n = 23n = 80n = 28
Age67.6 (9.4)68.6 (10.9)67.4 (9.8)61.5 (9.4)
Male gender43 (74.1%)12 (52.2%)54 (67.5%)19 (67.9%)
Body mass index (kg/m2)28.9 (5.2)28.5 (5.7)27.2 (4.7)26.3 (4.8)
Personal history of diabetes15 (25.9%)3 (13.0%)12 (15.0%)3 (10.7%)
CA19-9305.3 (411.1)2137.5 (2983.7)10.6 (6.9)68.9 (165.5)
Stage of disease
  I1 (1.7%)
  IA1 (1.7%)
  IB6 (10.3%)
  II16 (27.6%)
  IIA13 (22.4%)
  IIB21 (36.2%)
  III10 (43.5%)
  IV13 (56.5%)
Validation phase 2bn = 88n = 109n = 140n = 115n = 30n = 55
Age66.5 (11.3)64.4 (11.0)65.8 (10.8)68.8 (8.7)63.2 (7.1)55.9 (17.7)
Male gender45 (51.1%)62 (56.9%)70 (50.0%)58 (50.4%)22 (73.3%)27 (50.0%)
Body mass index (kg/m2)28.4 (5.4)29.1 (6.0)27.1 (4.4)26.5 (4.0)29.0 (4.9)27.8 (5.0)
Personal history of diabetes34 (38.6%)25 (22.9%)15 (10.7%)20 (17.4%)10 (33.3%)7 (13.0%)
CA19-9633.8 (1665.9)2399.3 (3481.1)12.0 (14.5)15.4 (12.3)45.3 (98.0)35.9 (66.0)
Stage of disease
  I4 (4.5%)
  IA2 (2.3%)
  IB4 (4.5%)
  II37 (42.0%)
  IIA15 (17.0%)
  IIB26 (29.5%)
  III41 (37.6%)
  IV68 (62.4%)