Table 1. Summary of patient cohorts.
CharacteristicTraining cohortProspective cohortTotal
MalignantBenignMalignantBenign
Total cases22108221135
Subtypes
  PDAC untreated132235
  PDAC neoadjuvant tx92433
  IPMN inter/high-grade1313
  NET1212
  Other cancer1111
  Benign cystic tumor55
  Pancreatitis88
  Controls10818
Age (years)
  Median6848655763
  Range47–8823–8217–8419–9117–91
Sex
  Male84471473
  Female141401469
CA 19-9
  PDAC untreated1,148 (1–6,684)1,006 (1–10,625)1,064 (1–10,625)
  PDAC neoadjuvant tx2,258 (19–17,101)657 (4–7,730)1,175 (4–17,101)
  IPMN10.6 (1–26)10.6 (1–26)
CEA
  PDAC untreated7.0 (2–12)3.4 (0.6–22.1)5.0 (0.6–22.1)
  PDAC neoadjuvant tx11.0 (1–53)56.4 (0.7–1,003)40 (0.7–1,003)
  IPMN2.1 (0.7–3.3)2.1 (0.7–3.3)
Stage
  I01010
  II14243
  III5510
  IV161026
Co-therapies PDAC
  Folfirinox/XRT42125
  Gemcitabine516
  Other22