Table 1. Summary of formulations, material preparation, 3D printing process, and additional characteristics of the HA-polymer composite systems discussed throughout this work.

The two materials, HAPCL and HAPLGA, are collectively referred to as HB. 3DP, 3D printing.

Solid
composition (%)
Solvent
composition (%)*
3DP preparation3DP
conditions
3DP rates
(mm/s)
Solidification
mechanism
Mechanical
characteristics
Trisolvent
(HAPCL) (9:1)
HA: 90
PLGA: 0
PCL: 10
DCM: 50
2-Bu: 33
DBP: 17
Ambient wet mixingAmbient0.5–150DCM evaporationElastic
Trisolvent
(HAPLGA) (9:1)
HA: 90
PLGA: 10
PCL: 0
DCM: 50
2-Bu: 33
DBP: 17
Ambient wet mixingAmbient0.5–150DCM evaporationElastic
Hot-melt (1:1)HA: 50
PLGA: 50
PCL: 0
DCM: 0
2-Bu: 0
DBP: 0
Dry mixing and melting at 200°C200°C0.1–5Temperature-inducedBrittle
Trisolvent (1:1)HA: 50
PLGA: 0
PCL: 50
DCM: 50
2-Bu: 33
DBP: 17
Ambient wet mixingAmbient0.5–20DCM evaporationPlastic
Single-solvent (9:1)HA: 90
PLGA: 0
PCL: 10
DCM: 100
2-Bu: 0
DBP: 0
Ambient wet mixingAmbient>50DCM evaporationBrittle

*Estimation based on initial volume of solvents used for ink synthesis and volume change after sufficient evaporation of DCM.

Hardware speed limitations of the 3D printing platform used in this work. Higher speeds may be possible with other hardware.