Table 1. Selected studies of translational optogenetics.
TargetKey translational findings and innovations
DiabetesMelanopsin-mediated transcription to optically control glucose tolerance in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes (9)
Optogenetic control of insulin release through transplantation of a mouse β cell line transfected with ChR2 (44)
ObesityDirect neural control of lipolysis and fat mass reduction using optogenetic activation of sympathetic nerve fibers (52)
CancerChETA-mediated membrane depolarization leading to selective apoptosis of transduced glioma cells and increased survival (5)
Skeletal muscleOptogenetic control of contraction in mammalian skeletal laryngeal muscle through muscle transduction (40)
Attenuated atrophy of denervated skeletal muscle through optogenetic stimulation of muscle cells (51)
Cardiovascular dysfunctionChR2 used for optogenetic control of heart muscle in vivo (38)
Systemic gene delivery of ChR2 enabled optogenetic pacing of mouse hearts (39)
Multisite optogenetic control of cardiac resynchronization (46)
Motor disordersRescue of patterned breathing after spinal cord hemisection (36)
Optogenetic control of peripheral motor neurons reduced muscle fatigue (37)
Optogenetic inhibition of peripheral motor neurons (19)
Restoration of muscle function in a denervated mouse model through embryonic stem cell–derived optically sensitive motor neuron
engraftment (8)
PainOptogenetic stimulation of pain-related behavior using a Nav1.8-ChR2 transgenic mouse (13)
Viral vector delivery to express opsins in nociceptors enabled optogenetic stimulation and suppression of pain (6)
Increased mechanical thresholds in rats with optogenetic inhibition of fast-conducting high-threshold mechanoreceptors (7)
A TRPV1 promoter driving expression of ArchT in nociceptors enabled optogenetic inhibition of pain (27)
New devicesOptogenetic modulation of the spinal cord in freely moving mice (10)
Implantable light delivery system with targeted viral transduction of peripheral motor neurons controlled muscle activity in walking rats (4)
Fully internal wireless device for optogenetic control of the spinal cord and periphery (48)
Implantable, flexible wireless optogenetic system for control of spinal and peripheral neural circuits (49)