Table 4.

Canonical pathways at gene level for each T2D subtype. ns, not significant.

Canonical pathwaySubtype 1Subtype 2Subtype 3Genes
Fatty acid β-oxidation III1.1 × 10−3nsnsECI1, ECI2
Acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA3.5 × 10−3nsnsACSL1, ACSL2
Netrin signaling6.2 × 10−3nsnsABLIM1, PRKG1, UNC5B, UNC5C
GABA receptor signaling8.8 × 10−3nsnsADCY8, ALDH5A1, GABBR1, GABRR2, GPHN
cAMP-mediated signaling9.2 × 10−3ns2.0 × 10−2Subtype 1: ADCY8, AKAP12, CAMK1D, CNGB1,
CNGB3, GABBR1, MC1R, PDE3A, PKIA, RGS7
Subtype 3: AKAP13, CAMK4, CHRM5, GNAI3, HTR1D,
PDE4B, PDE6A, PRKAR2B, RAF1
Role of pattern recognition receptors in recognition
of bacteria and viruses
ns1.8 × 10−3nsCXCL8, MAPK10, NLRP3, OAS1, OAS3, PRKCD, PRKCH
Thrombopoietin signalingns6.8 × 10−3nsGAB2, PRKCD, PRKCH, SOS1
α-Adrenergic signalingnsns1.2 × 10−3CAMK4, GNAI3, GYS1, ITPR2, PRKAR2B, RAF1, SLC8A1
Synaptic long-term depressionnsns1.4 × 10−3GNA11, GNAI3, GRID2, GRM1, ITPR2, PLA2G4C,
PLA2R1, PPP2R5B, RAF1,
CREB signaling in neuronsnsns1.4 × 10−3CAMK4, GNA11, GNAI3, GRID2, GRIK4, GRM1, ITPR2,
POLR2I, PRKAR2B, RAF1
Glutamate receptor signalingnsns4.2 × 10−3CAMK4, GRID2, GRIK4, GRM1, PICK1
Hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation3.0 × 10−2ns4.0 × 10−3Subtype 1: BCL2, COL19A1, COL28A1, IGF1R, IL1RAP,
LEPR, TGFB1, TGFB2
Subtype 3: BAX, COL15A1, COL25A1, COL4A4, COL5A1,
COL5A3,COL9A3, FGF2, KLF12, MYH7B
Sperm motilitynsns7.3 × 10−3CAMK4, ITPR2, PDE4B, PLA2G4C, PLA2R1, PRKAR2B, SLC12A2