Table 2. Clinical and molecular characteristics of the three imaging subtypes in both cohorts.

(A) The development (Stanford) cohort. (B) The validation (TCGA) cohort. For continuous values, data are means (SD). P values are derived from comparisons across the three clusters using the Kruskal-Wallis test (*) for continuous variables or the Fisher’s exact test () for categorical variables. Where noted as missing, molecular features were not available for analysis.

CharacteristicCluster 1, pre-multifocalCluster 2, sphericalCluster 3, rim-enhancingP value
(A) Development cohort
Age, mean (SD)64.7 (17.7)66.0 (11.7)62.0 (13.0)0.324*
Sex, n (%)
  Female142414
  Male2227200.736
Mean KPS (SD)67.7 (19.2)73.7 (13.9)72.9 (18.1)0.439*
Tumor volume, cm3 (SD)31.2 (30.1)22.6 (18.9)55.9 (32.7)4.49 × 10−7*
MGMT hypermethylation, n81270.747†
  Missing252919
EGFR amplification, n5880.702†
  Missing243317
Location, n0.0532
  Basal ganglia021
  Frontal92013
  Occipital400
  Parietal7610
  Temporal162311
(B) Validation cohort
Age, mean (SD)58.6 (14.5)58.9 (16.5)57.6 (13.4)0.506*
Sex, n (%)
  Female15 (37)15 (24)11 (28)
  Male15 (37)37 (59)21 (52)0.171
  Missing11118
Mean KPS ± SD78.3 ± 10.380 ± 12.676.6 ± 13.20.488*
  Missing763
Molecular subgroups, n (%)
  Classical4 (10)13 (21)8 (20)0.075
  Mesenchymal7 (17)19 (30)5 (13)
  Neural7 (17)3 (5)8 (20)
  Proneural7 (17)12 (19)7 (18)
  Missing161612
CIMP, n (%)4 (10)1 (2)1 (3)0.121
  Missing122
IDH1 mutation, n (%)3 (10)1 (2)0 (0)0.216
  Missing2119
MGMT hypermethylation, n (%)6 (21)13 (27)6 (21)0.496
  Missing172815
EGFR amplification, n (%)27 (66)43 (68)30 (75)0.662
  Missing10158