Table 1. Characteristics of the study population.

The table details the distribution and characteristics of the study population in relation to fertility treatment used and procedural outcome [LB (live birth) versus NLB (no live birth)]. Group I subjects achieved an LB pregnancy in their first attempt using TIC during the first spermatogenic cycle after semen assessment (90-day cycle) and were considered as a natural conception. Samples from test set II include different subgroups based on treatment: (i) IUI or TIC delayed past the first 90-day cycle, (ii) ART preceded by unsuccessful IUI or TIC, and (iii) ART. The independent set of samples (set III) was composed of two subgroups: (i) samples from an independent fertility clinic, and (ii) patients who never achieved LB and in whom a female factor was subsequently diagnosed. Sample characteristics include male and female ages and semen parameters comprising total million sperm cells per sample, sperm motility (%), total motile sperm per sample (TMC), sperm morphology [% of normal forms (NFs)], and sperm DNA fragmentation [DNA fragmentation index (DFI)]. (A) The type of fertility treatment used did not correlate with any individual or sperm sample parameter evaluated. (B) When all patients were considered as a group, female age showed a negative correlation with LB (two-tailed t test, P = 0.024). (C) Female age was significantly higher in patients who were unsuccessful when treated by ART (two-tailed t test, P = 0.004) but not in patients who were unsuccessful when treated by TIC/IUI.

Natural conceptionTest setIndependent setP
Male age3534.633.634.23736.20.683
Female age32.33231.133.635.2320.304
Total million sperm193.4172.9235.8159349.9160.20.090
Sperm motility (%)5452.3505039.552.50.441
Sperm morphology (% NF)10.810.
DNA fragmentation (DFI)14.716.417.319.418.40.734
Final outcomeP
LB (n = 62)NLB (n = 10)
Male age34.6350.770
Female age3234.90.024*
Total million sperm192.4212.40.122
Sperm motility (%)50.452.80.583
Sperm morphology (% NF)8.810.90.342
DNA fragmentation (DFI)17.514.60.303
LB (n = 35)NLB (n = 17)LB (n = 27)NLB (n = 6)
Female age32.331.50.37731.5370.004*

*Statistically significant differences.