Table 1. New approaches for preventing or treating GVHD and solid organ transplant rejection.
CategoryTherapyDescription
Reducing
inflammatory
cytokines
TocilizumabAnti–IL-6R mAb
UstekinumabAnti–IL-12/23 mAb
NN8828Anti–IL-21 mAb
MSB0010841Anti–IL-17A/F
nanobody
SecukinumabAnti–IL-17A mAb
Altering immune
cell trafficking
MaravirocCCR5 small-
molecule inhibitor
FingolimodSphingosine-1-phosphate
receptor modulator
Inhibition
of T and
B cell
signaling
RuxolitinibJAK1/2 small-
molecule inhibitor
TofacitinibJAK3 small-molecule
inhibitor
IbrutinibITK/BTK small-molecule
inhibitor
SotrastaurinPKC-θ small-molecule
inhibitor
KD025ROCK2 small-molecule
inhibitor
TMP778, TMP920RORγ small-molecule
inhibitors
B cell depletionRituximabAnti-CD20 mAb
Preferential
in vivo
expansion
of Tregs
Rapamycin (+IL-2)mTOR small-
molecule inhibitor
Azacitidine (+IL-2)DNA-hypomethylating
agent
IL-2Antiapoptotic,
proliferative cytokine
VorinostatHDAC small-molecule
inhibitor
CyclophosphamideDNA-alkylating agent
Cell therapiesTregsCD4+CD25+Foxp3+
suppressive T cell
Type 1 T regulatory
(Tr1) cells
CD4+Lag3+CD49b+
suppressive T cell
Mesenchymal stem
cells
Suppressive stem
cell population
Regulatory
macrophages
Suppressive
macrophages
Regulatory
dendritic cells (DCs)
Suppressive DCs
Stem cell transplant with solid organ transplantChimerism to induce
tolerance
Inhibition of T cell
costimulation
AbataceptCTLA4-Ig
fusion protein
BelataceptCTLA4-Ig
fusion protein
Single-chain CD28
antibody
Anti-CD28 mAb
LucatumumabAnti-CD40 mAb
AMG-557Anti–ICOS-L mAb
Complement
inhibition
EculizumabAnti-C5a mAb
Targeting metabolic
pathways
Kynurenine infusionTryptophan
metabolite
TLR7/8 AgonistEnhances kynurenine production by APCs
Blocking germinal
center formation
Compound 79-6Bcl-6 small-
molecule inhibitor
GSK2816126EZH2 small-
molecule inhibitor
E7438EZH2 small-
molecule inhibitor
OtherBortezomibProteasome small-
molecule inhibitor