Table 1. Demographic and clinical variables (N = 26).

SRS, Surgical Recovery Scale; WOMAC, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index; SF-36, Short Form Health Survey; PCS, Physical Component Score; MCS, Mental Component Score; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; POMS-A, Profile of Moods States Tension-Anxiety Scale; MAC, minimal alveolar concentration of average exposure during surgery.

Demographics*
Gender (male/female)16/10
Race (Caucasian/African American)25/1
Age (years)59.5 (54.0–68.0)
Body mass index (kg/m2)26.5 (24.4–28.1)
QuestionnairesBefore surgery6 weeks after surgery
SRS62.3 (57.3–80.8)80.8 (67.1–86.8)
WOMAC131.5 (80.0–180.0)33.5 (11.0–51.0)
SF-36
  PCS38.9 (21.9–42.1)41.5 (31.1–49.8)
  MCS55.3 (39.7–59.6)60.3 (49.3–64.3)
BDI7.5 (3.0–11.0)5.5 (1.0–8.0)
POMS-A
  Men5.5 (3.5–9.5)5.0 (4.0–6.8)
  Women7.0 (5.0–14.0)4.0 (3.0–4.0)
Surgery
Duration (min)100 (85–119)
Blood loss (ml)250 (200–310)
Urine output (ml)200 (100–300)
Fluids
  Crystalloids (ml)1500 (1000–2000)
  Colloids (ml)0 (0–0)
  Blood products (ml)0 (0–0)
Time to discharge (days)3.1 (3.0–3.8)
Anesthesia
Technique
  General (number of patients)6
  Spinal (number of patients)1
  General + spinal (number of patients)19
Volatile anesthetic
  Number of patients25
  MAC (%)0.5 (0.4–0.7)
Nitrous oxide
  Number of patients11
  MAC (%)0.5 (0.4–0.6)
Intrathecal medications
  Number of patients (%)20
  Bupivacaine (mg)11.3 (10.5–12.0)
  Morphine (mg)0.2 (0.1–0.2)
Opioid use
Intraoperative (mg)2.8 (1.5–3.8)
During hospital stay (mg)16.0 (13.1–27.4)
After discharge (mg)9.0 (5.5–16.9)

*Values indicate number of patients or median and interquartile range.

†Milligram equivalent of intravenous hydromorphone. Dose during hospitalization is total cumulative dose. Dose after discharge is cumulative dose taken on survey days.