Table 1.

Modern technologies that address the challenges of emerging viral infections.

TechnologyApplication to emerging viral infections
Genomic sequencingIdentification of new agents (such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV); evaluation of strain diversity (HIV, MERS-CoV)
Rapid diagnosticsReal-time reverse transcription–PCR for Ebola virus; distinguishing bacterial versus viral causes of certain acute respiratory illness
Structural biologyVaccine design for influenza, HIV, respiratory syncytial virus; therapeutics design for HIV, HCV
New vaccine platformsViral vectors for Ebola virus, Marburg virus, HIV; virus-like particles for chikungunya virus; nanoparticle platforms for influenza virus immunogens