Table 2 Mobilizing multiple stakeholders.

Domains of theory and practice that may aid evolution of the science of collaboration.

Sample domainRelevant concept*OriginsApplications for collaborative innovation
Operational: Distributed innovationInnovation emanates not only from the manufacturer of a product but also from many sources, such as users and competitors.Term coined by E. Von Hippel1Study the impact of various design levers (organizational structures, incentive models, funding schemes, enabling technologies) on collaborative innovation.
Management: Distributed leadershipA framework for mobilizing effective leadership at all levels of an organization rather than simply from the top.Model framed by researchers at MIT Leadership Center2• Provides frameworks for organizational structures that foster “bottom-up” leadership across a broad range of functions and teams.
• Defines core competencies for leadership development at the consortium, team, and individual levels.
Organizational: Complex adaptive systemsA dynamic network of independent “agents” that act in parallel with no centralized source of control and that must adapt to a constantly changing environment in order to survive.Term coined by the Santa Fe Institute team led by J. H. Holland, M. Gell-Mann, and others3Provides insight into:
• Inefficient adaptive capacity of an innovation ecosystem, resulting from poor coordination and stakeholder alignment.
• Strategic role of multistakeholder collaborations as microenvironments designed to drive stakeholder alignment and efficient adaptation strategies.
Communications: Network-centric warfareTranslate timely strategic information into competitive advantage through robust network of well-informed, geographically distributed forces.U.S. Department of Defense4• Design communication processes to foster timely capture of emerging relevant information by geographically distributed collaborators.
• Explore operational models of collaboration designed to be flexible and adaptive in response to new information.

*Relevant concept is an abbreviated description of each sample domain for the purpose of illustration in this paper. 1Democratizing innovation; 2