Table 1

Statistics of the 10 most significant invasive fungal infections.

Disease (most common species)LocationEstimated life-threatening infections
/year at that location*
Mortality rates (% in infected
populations)*
Opportunistic invasive mycoses
  Aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus)Worldwide>200,00030–95
  Candidiasis (Candida albicans)Worldwide>400,00046–75
  Cryptococcosis (Cryptococcus neoformans)Worldwide>1,000,00020–70
  Mucormycosis (Rhizopus oryzae)Worldwide>10,00030–90
  Pneumocystis (Pneumocystis jirovecii)Worldwide>400,00020–80
Endemic dimorphic mycoses*
  Blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidis)Midwestern and Atlantic
United States
~3,000<2–68
  Coccidioidomycosis (Coccidioides immitis)Southwestern United States~25,000<1–70
  Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)Midwestern United States~25,00028–50
  Paracoccidioidomycosis (Paracoccidioides
brasiliensis)
Brazil~4,0005–27
  Penicilliosis (Penicillium marneffei)Southeast Asia>8,0002–75

*Most of these figures are estimates based on available data, and the logic behind these estimates can be found in the text and in the Supplementary Materials.

Endemic dimorphic mycoses can occur at many locations throughout the world. However, data for most of those locations are severely limited. For these mycoses, we have estimated the infections per year and the mortality at a specific location, where the most data are available.