Table 2

Population-based twin studies used for analysis. Disease prevalence in cohort [cohort risk (CR)] was determined as described in Materials and Methods. MZ, monozygotic.

Disease/conditionSexNumber of MZ
twin pairs
Number of MZ
disease-concordant
pairs
Number of MZ
disease-discordant
pairs
Disease
prevalence in
cohort (CR) (%)
Reference
Bladder cancerMale and female15,66851890.6Lichtenstein et al. (19)
Breast cancerFemale8,437425053.5Lichtenstein et al. (19)
Colorectal cancerMale and female15,668304161.5Lichtenstein et al. (19)
LeukemiaMale and female15,66821030.3Lichtenstein et al. (19)
Lung cancerMale and female15,668182961.1Lichtenstein et al. (19)
Ovarian cancerFemale8,43731250.8Lichtenstein et al. (19)
Pancreatic cancerMale and female15,66831230.4Lichtenstein et al. (19)
Prostate cancerMale7,231402992.6Lichtenstein et al. (19)
Stomach cancerMale and female15,668112230.8Lichtenstein et al. (19)
Thyroid autoimmunityMale and female2847175.5Hansen et al. (20)
Type 1 diabetesMale and female4,3073200.3Kaprio et al. (21)
Gallstone diseaseMale and female11,0731129565.3Katsika et al. (22)
Type 2 diabetesMale and female4,307291132.0Kaprio et al. (21)
Alzheimer’s diseaseMale and female398281.5Gatz et al. (23)
DementiaMale and female3983162.8Gatz et al. (23)
Parkinson diseaseMale3,4777601.1Tanner et al. (24)
Chronic fatigueFemale1,80313352622.0Sullivan et al. (25)
Male1,4264826612.7Sullivan et al. (25)
Gastroesophageal
reflux disorder
Female1,2606328416.3Cameron et al. (26)
Male9183218513.6Cameron et al. (26)
Irritable bowel
syndrome
Male and female1,25214975.0Bengtson et al. (27)
Coronary heart
disease death
Female2,0049742415.4Zdravkovic et al. (28)
Male1,64015345123.1Zdravkovic et al. (28)
Stroke-related deathMale and female3,852353165.0Bak et al. (29)
General dystociaFemale9284017313.6Algovik et al. (30)
Pelvic organ prolapseFemale3,376341573.3Altman et al. (31)
Stress urinary
incontinence
Female3,37613871.7Altman et al. (31)