Table 2 Medical interventions proven to prevent cancer. RCT, randomized controlled trial.
InterventionTargetMagnitude of reductionPeriod of time (years)Evidence
AspirinTotal cancer mortality20%20Follow-up of eight RCTs (14)
AspirinColon cancer mortality40%20Five RCTs (6) and RCT in Lynch syndrome (11)
SERMs (tamoxifen, raloxifene)Breast cancer incidence40–50%5+RCT (5, 69)
Salpingo-oophorectomyFamilial breast cancer50%3+Synthesis of observational data (34)
Screening for colon cancer (sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy)Colon cancer mortalitySigmoidoscopy, 30–40%10UK RCT sigmoidoscopy (33)
Colonoscopy, 50%Observational data and disease modeling (70, 71)
Vaccines (HPV and hepatitis)Cervical cancer incidence50–100%20+Modeling vaccination rates and persistence of protection (23)
Liver cancer incidence70–100%Observational follow-up data from universal population vaccination program at birth (22, 72)
MammographyBreast cancer mortality30%10–20RCT and modeling (73, 74)
Spiral computed tomography for lung cancerLung cancer mortality20%6+RCT (75)