Table 3. Practical UDR guidelines for providing multiple means of responding to research instruments and interventions.


Provide visual, voiced, and tactile means of response to questionnaires and other research instruments.
• For visual response, use both written and picture choices.
• Consider (i) using a VRS to communicate with deaf participants; (ii) allowing Braille responses from Braille writers; (iii) providing an ASL interpreter for deaf participants who use ASL; (iv) using touch screen questionnaires on tablet or pad computers, with visual, tactile, and audio cues; and (v) using telephone interviews, a standard technique that is already accessible to most people.
Provide accessible options for interventions.
• For self-management interventions using technology, ensure that options are available with visual, audible, and tactile output (for example, talking blood pressure and blood glucose meters with large print, insulin pumps with vibrating alarms, talking pedometers, and alarm clocks that talk or have flashing lights).
• For qualitative research that requires participants to keep journals, allow a recorded format for those who keep records as recordings. Consider providing a low-cost digital recorder that can be downloaded into a computer for easy transcription.