Table 2. Representative challenges for the SciTS.


Macro-level challengesSciTS must address broad philosophical issues concerning the ways of pursuing (and encouraging) differing forms of scientific progress. For example, organizational change is needed at the university level, so that researchers practicing collaboration and interdisciplinarity are rewarded and not punished for their team-based versus individually pursued projects.
From a policy standpoint, SciTS needs to understand how to develop and support a programmatic line of inquiry into team science. Relevant studies should encompass professional and organizational culture and identity.
Research on leadership is required to identify and leverage the factors that influence the management and effectiveness of interdisciplinary research (8).
Meso-level challengesResearch in SciTS can explore how to develop improved recommender systems that enable the assembly of optimal teams, taking into account the social incentives that are necessary for the team to function effectively.
SciTS must help us understand how we can adapt and apply methods from the study of teams to team science. Such research could use systematic techniques to, for example, identify whether needs such as leadership or communication training should be implemented (8).
SciTS can identify the particular coordination requirements that a team may need and the outcomes arising from these varied interdependencies.
Micro-level challengesResearch in SciTS can compare educational approaches that focus on training within a particular discipline versus those that foster exposure to multiple mentors across two or more disciplines, incorporating ideas drawn from other areas.
SciTS can study the appropriate blend of educational approaches, teamwork skills, and training modalities required to support those trained in varied disciplines (37).
SciTS can increase our understanding of the social and behavioral factors that affect who chooses to engage in team science.