Table 1. European institutions with responsibility for developing and applying policy associated with translational medicine.

Activities at the EU level must also take into account the role of national authorities to support research, deliver public health, and manage the approval and availability of medical products.

European CommissionDirectorates-General for Research, Enterprise, and Public Health have operational roles to support health-related research and its application. The European Commission initiates law-making, develops policies, and manages programs while respecting the principle of subsidiarity (in those domains where the EU does not have exclusive competence to act).
European AgenciesECDC has roles to identify, assess, and communicate threats from infection. EMEA has responsibility for EU-wide marketing authorization, comprising assessment, supervision, and pharmacovigilance.
European ParliamentDirectly elected body of EU that can draft legislation and request the executive to present proposals. Has codecision role in law-making with EU Council.
Council of EUComposed of ministers from member states and has codecision role with Parliament. Can also set out general guidelines and political priorities for the other institutions. Presidency of the council is held by each member state for 6 months in turn under a rotating system.