Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Effect of maternal betaine administration on young mouse offspring.
  • Fig. S2. Effects of maternal betaine administration on mouse offspring energy homeostasis.
  • Fig. S3. Effects of maternal antibiotic coadministration on offspring long-term metabolic health in mice.
  • Fig. S4. Effect of betaine administration on the maternal and offspring gut microbiome in mice.
  • Fig. S5. Effect of betaine on bacterial growth in vitro.
  • Fig. S6. Effect of maternal betaine supplementation on mouse ileum histology and gene expression.
  • Table S1. No association between milk betaine concentration and change in human infant body length z score and head circumference.
  • Table S2. Prevalence of A. muciniphila in human infants exposed to low and high breast milk betaine content.
  • Table S3. Primer sequences for qPCR analyses.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Individual level data for all figures.