Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Higher fecal and serum AhR ligands in NOD/DQ8 mice fed a high-tryptophan diet are associated with greater Lactobacillus abundance.
  • Fig. S2. Gluten treatment shifts the gut microbiota composition of NOD/DQ8 mice regardless of diet intervention.
  • Fig. S3. Fecal tryptophan and AhR ligand concentrations before and after gluten treatment in NOD/DQ8 mice.
  • Fig. S4. Tryptophan supplementation increases AhR ligand concentrations in gluten-treated NOD/DQ8 mouse serum.
  • Fig. S5. Expression of AhR pathway genes in C57Bl/6 and NOD/DQ8 mice.
  • Fig. S6. Patients with active celiac disease have reduced AhR ligands in stool and increased kynurenine metabolites.
  • Fig. S7. Proposed scheme for tryptophan metabolism in the gut of patients with celiac disease.
  • Table S1. Composition of low- and high-tryptophan diets.
  • Table S2. qPCR primers used for gene expression analysis.
  • Table S3. Demographics of the clinical cohort.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Individual-level data for all figures.