Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Investigation of surface wettability and ink composition for colloidal inkjet printing.
  • Fig. S2. Optimization of drop spacing for the stacked coins printing.
  • Fig. S3. High-quality colloidal inkjet printing.
  • Fig. S4. NTA plots of EVs isolated from breast cancer cell lines and patient plasma by UC.
  • Fig. S5. Specificity of sEV immunoisolation with the EV-CLUE chips.
  • Fig. S6. Optimization of capture antibodies for immunodetection of sEV-MMP14.
  • Fig. S7. Verification of MMP14 expression on EVs derived from breast cancer cells.
  • Fig. S8. Optimization of the sEV MMP14 activity assay.
  • Fig. S9. Knockdown of MMP14 reduces MDA-MB-231 cell invasion.
  • Fig. S10. Detection of the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells.
  • Fig. S11. Validation of antibodies for sEV analysis in the mouse models.
  • Fig. S12. Growth of subcutaneously xenografted tumors in 16 mice.
  • Fig. S13. Time-lapse, multiparametric measurements of circulating sEVs in 16 mice using the EV-CLUE technology.
  • Fig. S14. Box-whiskers charts with overlapping data points of time-lapse analysis of circulating sEVs in individual mice.
  • Fig. S15. Comparison of MMP14 expression and activity of plasma sEVs in the mice developing primary tumors with or without lung metastasis.
  • Fig. S16. Scatterplots of the SUM signatures for detecting breast cancer from the control.
  • Fig. S17. Detection of the combined group of invasive and metastatic IDC from the control and DCIS groups in the training cohort.
  • Fig. S18. Confusion matrices from discriminant classification of the patient cohorts.
  • Fig. S19. Correlation circle derived from discriminant analysis of the training cohort.
  • Fig. S20. Correlation between the sEV MMP14 expression and activity measured for all samples of the training and validation cohorts.
  • Fig. S21. Detection of the combined group of advanced cases from the control and DCIS groups in the validation cohort.
  • Fig. S22. NTA plots of EVs isolated from patient plasma.
  • Fig. S23. Correlation between the measurements of EVs in patient plasma with the EV-CLUE chip and NTA.
  • Fig. S24. Characterization of UC-purified EVs from the sample set used in fig. S22.
  • Fig. S25. Comparison of the EV-CLUE nanochip and standard microplate ELISA for analysis of breast cancer samples.
  • Fig. S26. Representative images of H&E and IHC staining of MMP14 in patient-matched primary tumor tissues.
  • Table S1. Antibodies and ELISA kits used in this research.
  • Table S2. Summary of two cohorts of women controls and patients.
  • Table S3. Statistical analyses of diagnostic performance of sEV markers for the training and validation cohorts.
  • References (69, 70)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Original data for the mouse model studies in Figs. 4 and 5.
  • Data file S2 (Microsoft Excel format). Original data for the on-chip measurements of patient samples in Figs. 6 and 7.