Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Direct effects of human insulin and insulin analogs on endothelial function ex vivo in humans.
  • Fig. S2. Association between serum insulin and NADPH oxidase activity in humans.
  • Fig. S3. Dose-response effects of human insulin and insulin analogs on human vascular redox state.
  • Fig. S4. Effects of human insulin on vascular redox state in humans.
  • Fig. S5. Effects of insulin on proinflammatory transcriptional pathways in human arteries.
  • Fig. S6. Effects of human insulin on vascular redox state in wild-type mice.
  • Fig. S7. Effects of insulin on vascular redox state in patients with diabetes on metformin.
  • Fig. S8. DPP4 inhibition regulates the effects of human insulin on human vascular redox state.
  • Fig. S9. DPP4 inhibition has no direct superoxide (O2·)–scavenging properties.
  • Fig. S10. Linagliptin, a DPP4i, reverses the prooxidant effects of insulin on the vasculature of HFD-fed ApoE−/− mice.
  • Fig. S11. Association between circulating DPP4 activity and vascular redox state in humans.
  • Fig. S12. Linagliptin reverses the effect of insulin on endothelial function in HFD-fed ApoE−/− mice.
  • Fig. S13. DPP4 inhibition regulates the downstream signaling balance in response to human insulin in humans.
  • Fig. S14. The role of GLP1R and PKCβ signaling in the vascular insulin-sensitizing properties of DPP4 inhibition.
  • Fig. S15. Effect of DPP4 inhibition on NFκB nuclear translocation.
  • Fig. S16. Proinflammatory cytokines, diabetes, and arterial redox state in humans with atherosclerosis.
  • Fig. S17. Summary and proposed mechanism.
  • Table S1. Demographic characteristics of patients with and without diabetes.
  • Table S2. Multivariate regression analysis testing the interaction between insulin/DPP4 activity, use of statins, and plasma inflammatory biomarkers in predicting Vas2870-inhibitable superoxide (O2·) in human IMA.
  • References (41, 42)

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