Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Material and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Platelet-rich plasma preparations from HIV-infected individuals were not contaminated by HIV-infected CD4+ T cells.
  • Fig. S2. Flow cytometry gating strategy for the detection of HIV in platelets from HIV-infected individuals on ART.
  • Fig. S3. HIV-containing platelets detected by electron and confocal microscopy.
  • Fig. S4. Infection of macrophages by HIV in platelets is due to direct interactions and not residual cell-free viruses present in platelet-rich plasma.
  • Fig. S5. HIV-1 integrated proviral DNA in megakaryocytes from HIV-infected individuals on ART with viral suppression.
  • Fig. S6. Deep sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of HIV env V3 segments before and after viral suppression in the same HIV-infected individuals on ART.
  • Fig. S7. Interaction between platelets and macrophages is blocked by the anti–integrin αII/β3 Fab abciximab.
  • Fig. S8. Detection of HIV-containing platelets does not correlate with other clinical characteristics.
  • Table S1. Clinical information on HIV-infected individuals on ART analyzed for HIV in platelets.
  • Table S2. Clinical information on each HIV-infected individual on ART analyzed for HIV in platelets.
  • Table S3. Available viral load measurements for HIV-infected individuals on ART positive for HIV in platelets and with a viral load below the LOD at the date of sampling.
  • Table S4. Clinical information for each HIV-infected individual on ART analyzed for HIV in megakaryocytes.
  • Table S5. ART regimens for HIV-infected individuals classified as positive or negative for the presence of HIV in platelets.
  • Table S6. CD4+ T cell counts and viral load measurements for HIV-infected individuals on ART with controlled viremia and positive for HIV in platelets.
  • Table S7. List of Gag mRNA probe sequences used for FISH flow cytometry.
  • Legend for movie S1
  • References (4968)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mov format). Laser scanning confocal microscopy image of an HIV-containing platelet being engulfed by a macrophage.
  • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Individual-level data for Figs. 1, 2, and 4 and figs. S1, S4, and S7.