Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Controlling carboxylic group density on the PCL nanofiber by changing plasma treatment time.
  • Fig. S2. Controlling the length of nanofiber fragments and the reproducibility of composites.
  • Fig. S3. The molecular structure of HA hydrogel as a comparison for the composite.
  • Fig. S4. Characterization of mechanical properties of the composite.
  • Fig. S5. Fluorescence image showing the distribution of nanofibers inside the composite.
  • Fig. S6. Fluorescence image showing phase separation of carboxyl-functionalized nanofibers from the hydrogel.
  • Fig. S7. Vascular-like network formation in HA hydrogels.
  • Fig. S8. hASCs cocultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells inside the 80-Pa hydrogel.
  • Fig. S9. Infiltration of host vascular cells into the 150-Pa composite at POD 7.
  • Fig. S10. Blood vessels inside the 150-Pa composite at POD 14.
  • Fig. S11. Well-formed blood vessel networks inside the 150-Pa composite at POD 84.
  • Fig. S12. Vascular maturation inside the 150-Pa composite at PODs 7, 14, and 84.
  • Fig. S13. Vascular network inside the 150-Pa composite at POD 84 shown in the 3D image.
  • Fig. S14. Macroscopic images of subcutaneously injected 80- and 150-Pa hydrogels and 150-Pa composite at PODs 7 and 14.
  • Fig. S15. Perfusable blood vessels observed in the 150-Pa composite examined by indocyanine green angiography.
  • Fig. S16. Macrophages infiltrated 80- and 150-Pa hydrogels and 150-Pa composite at POD 14.
  • Fig. S17. Composite-mediated macrophage polarization in vitro.
  • Fig. S18. Macrophage morphologies inside the 80- and 150-Pa hydrogels and 150-Pa composite under normal conditions.
  • Fig. S19. Angiogenesis-related gene expression inside the 150-Pa composite.
  • Fig. S20. Comparison of angiogenic gene expression between the composite and the hydrogel with the same G′ of 150 Pa.
  • Fig. S21. Composite-mediated tissue regeneration in a rabbit soft tissue defect model.
  • Fig. S22. Processes involved in composite-mediated angiogenesis.
  • Table S1. Primary antibodies used in this study.
  • References (4248)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Individual subject-level data for quantitative analysis.