Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Differential gene expression among four permethrin-exposed mosquito populations in Africa and the FANG strain.
  • Fig. S2. GO enrichment of up-regulated genes using BLAST2GO.
  • Fig. S3. qRT-PCR validation of the expression profile of the main detoxification genes differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible mosquito samples using RNA-seq.
  • Fig. S4. Insertion of a 6.5-kb intergenic fragment between CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b in mosquitoes from southern Africa.
  • Fig. S5. Genetic diversity patterns of an 800-bp cis-regulatory genomic fragment of CYP6P9a before and after scale-up of insecticide-treated bednet use.
  • Fig. S6. Design of a DNA-based diagnostic assay to detect and track pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes across Africa.
  • Fig. S7. Impact of CYP6P9a-mediated metabolic-based pyrethroid resistance on the efficacy of insecticide-treated bednets using experimental field huts.
  • Table S1. Descriptive statistics of RNA-seq sequence read data and alignments for different samples.
  • Table S2. Detoxification-associated genes differentially expressed among four pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations and the FANG susceptible mosquito strain.
  • Table S3. Descriptive statistics of whole-genome POOLseq sequence read data.
  • Table S4. Counts of reads aligned at the left and right breakpoints of the 6.5-kb insertion supporting different haplotypes.
  • Table S5. Population genetic parameters of the 800-bp fragment upstream of CYP6P9a.
  • Table S6. Correlation between CYP6P9a genotypes and mosquito mortality (PermaNet 2.0 bednets) and blood feeding after the experimental field hut trial with the FANG/FUMOZ mosquito strain.
  • Table S7. Primers used for characterization of the CYP6P9a promoter.
  • References (4450)

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