Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Correlation of FSTL3 with activin, GDF8 + GDF11, and TGFβ in AS cohort.
  • Fig. S2. Correlation of GDF8 + GDF11 and TGFβ with age and HF metrics in AS cohort.
  • Fig. S3. Circulating GDF8 inversely correlates with age and skeletal muscle mass.
  • Fig. S4. Increased circulating activin A induces cardiac and skeletal muscle atrophy.
  • Fig. S5. ActRII reagents do not significantly alter blood pressure in young and old mice.
  • Fig. S6. Supplemental GDF11 induces cardiac and skeletal muscle atrophy.
  • Fig. S7. CDD866 increases skeletal muscle mass but not cardiac mass in old mice.
  • Fig. S8. CDD866 reduces cardiac fibrosis-related gene expression in TAC.
  • Fig. S9. RAP-031 prevents and rescues cardiac dysfunction in TAC.
  • Fig. S10. Characterization of CS-ActRIIB-KO mouse.
  • Fig. S11. Activin A effects on CM SERCA2a mRNA expression.
  • Fig. S12. Schematic of activin-ActRII-Smurf1-SERCA2a mechanism.
  • Table S1. Association of circulating FSTL3, activins, GDF8 + GDF11, and TGFβ with female sex.
  • Table S2. Baseline characteristics of AS cohort phenotyped for HF.
  • Table S3. Baseline characteristics of AS cohort phenotyped for frailty.
  • Table S4. Baseline phenotyping of old C57BL/6 mice in GDF11 substudy.
  • Legends for tables S5 to S7
  • Table S8. Primer sequences used for quantitative PCR analyses.
  • Legends for movies S1 and S2
  • Legend for data file S1

[Download PDF]

Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Table S5. Differential gene expression dataset of CMs exposed to ActRII ligands (Excel file).
  • Table S6. List of pathways up-regulated in CMs by ActRII ligands (Excel file).
  • Table S7. List of pathways down-regulated in CMs by ActRII ligands (Excel file).
  • Movie S1 (.avi format). CM isolated from Ad.GFP-infected mouse.
  • Movie S2 (.avi format). CM isolated from Ad.activin A–infected mouse.
  • Data file S1. Primary datasets from animal and CM studies (Excel file).