Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Maps of the AAVV genomes.
  • Fig. S2. Transgene expression in different cardiac compartments after gene painting of the RA of adult rat hearts with AAV2/9.45.HsNPPA.ReaChR~citrine.SV40pA.
  • Fig. S3. Transgene expression after gene painting of the RA of adult rat hearts with AAV2/9.45.HsNPPA.citrine.SV40pA.
  • Fig. S4. Masson’s trichrome staining of the RA and LA after gene painting of the RA with AAV2/9.45.HsNPPA.ReaChR~citrine.SV40pA.
  • Fig. S5. Light intensity–duration curve for optical atrial pacing of adult rat hearts after gene painting of the RA with AAV2/9.45.HsNPPA.ReaChR~citrine.SV40pA.
  • Fig. S6. Correlation between surface area and location of right atrial illumination on optogenetic termination of atrial tachyarrhythmias ex vivo.
  • Fig. S7. Efficient autogenous termination of atrial flutter in vivo after gene painting of the RA of adult rat hearts with AAV2/9.45.HsNPPA.ReaChR~citrine.SV40pA.
  • Fig. S8. Implantable LED device.
  • Fig. S9. Schematic overview of the AF detection algorithm and experimental setup.
  • Fig. S10. Prolonged illumination of the RA and ventricle of adult rat hearts after gene painting of the RA with AAV2/9.45.HsNPPA.ReaChR~citrine.SV40pA.
  • Fig. S11. Ex vivo temperature measurements of the RA during LED activation.
  • Fig. S12. Computational simulation of thermal heating after activation of the implantable LED device based on in vivo conditions.
  • Legend for Data file S1
  • Legends for Movies S1 and S2

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Raw data.
  • Movie S1 (.avi format). Optical voltage mapping of the ReaChR-expressing RA during AF and subsequent optogenetic restoration of sinus rhythm.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Summary of all essential experimental steps leading to the development of the automated hybrid bioelectronic system for autogenous restoration of sinus rhythm in AF.