Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Aging induces monocyte accumulation and activation in the PeC.
  • Fig. S2. The PeC and ometum of aged mice are inflamed.
  • Fig. S3. Aging induced 4BL cells in primates.
  • Fig. S4. Aging substantially changed the gut microbiome.
  • Fig. S5. A. muciniphila loss in aging induced gut leakiness and 4BL conversion.
  • Fig. S6. Aging changed fatty acids in the intestine and feces.
  • Fig. S7. Chronic LPS injection imitated aging-induced 4BL cell accumulation.
  • Fig. S8. 4BL cells increased IR in aging.
  • Fig. S9. Schema summarizing our findings.
  • Table S1. Operational taxonomic units for several butyrate inducers were markedly reduced in aging of C57BL/6 mice.
  • Table S2. Compared to middle-aged mice, aged C57BL/6 mice increase IR.
  • References (5874)

[Download PDF]

Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Table S3 (Microsoft Excel format). Raw data for the experiments.