Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Magnetic monitoring of an oral semaglutide tablet in a representative beagle dog.
  • Fig. S2. Effect of food on semaglutide plasma exposure after oral dosing in beagle dogs.
  • Fig. S3. Ratio of paracetamol plasma concentrations sampled from splenic/portal veins.
  • Fig. S4. Arithmetic mean semaglutide plasma concentration–time profiles after a single dose of 10 mg of oral semaglutide with varying amounts of SNAC in healthy males.
  • Fig. S5. Papp of semaglutide across monolayers of NCI-N87 gastric epithelial cells.
  • Fig. S6. Hemotoxylin and eosin staining of rat gastric mucosa after exposure to buffer alone, SNAC, ethanol, and acetylsalicylic acid.
  • Fig. S7. Transport of FD4, FD10, FD20, and FD150 across monolayers of NCI-N87 gastric epithelial cells.
  • Fig. S8. CF leakage assay performed with CF-loaded large unilamellar liposomes composed of DMPC.
  • Fig. S9. Effect of NaCl on the sedimentation coefficient of semaglutide.
  • Fig. S10. pH during incubation of semaglutide tablets without SNAC in SGF.
  • Fig. S11. Enzymatic degradation of native GLP-1 in the presence of pepsin at different pH values.
  • Fig. S12. Reactivity by 3F15 and 1F46 in the perfusion-fixed rat stomach.
  • Fig. S13. Mechanism of absorption of oral semaglutide.
  • Table S1. Bioavailability study of oral semaglutide in beagle dogs.
  • Table S2. Participant disposition in the clinical trials.
  • Table S3. Baseline characteristics in the clinical trials.
  • Table S4. Individual results for data with n < 20.
  • Reference (42)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Uptake of semaglutide within blood vessels of the lamina propria mucosae.