Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Current pathways through resistive arrays.
  • Fig. S2. Schematic illustration of the DAQ and control system for an array of 100 sensors.
  • Fig. S3. Calibration map for ESA.
  • Fig. S4. PCA for determining the presence of flow with an ESA.
  • Fig. S5. PCA for determining the orientation and magnitude of flow with an ESA.
  • Fig. S6. Flow diagram detailing the process for conversion of raw ESA sensor recordings to a spatial temperature map.
  • Fig. S7. Benchtop flow system.
  • Fig. S8. Depth of thermal penetration.
  • Fig. S9. Transient thermal analysis of flow.
  • Fig. S10. Flow measurements through thick (6 mm) layers of soft tissue.
  • Fig. S11. Effect of actuator power.
  • Fig. S12. Experimentally measured effects of changing skin thermal properties.
  • Fig. S13. Simulated effects of changing skin thermal properties.
  • Fig. S14. Effect of ambient free air convection.
  • Fig. S15. Effect of uncertainty in placement.
  • Fig. S16. Effect of altered intersensor distances.
  • Fig. S17. Low-frequency dc noise sources.
  • Fig. S18. High-frequency ac and dc noise.
  • Fig. S19. In vivo noise.
  • Fig. S20. Prevention of delamination during extreme deformation via adhesive design.
  • Fig. S21. Effect of near-surface blood vessels.
  • Fig. S22. Wired and wireless DAQ and control systems.
  • Fig. S23. Wireless control via smartphone.
  • Fig. S24. Wired DAQ used in clinical trials.
  • Fig. S25. Raw in vivo data.
  • Fig. S26. In vivo measurements of skin thermal properties.
  • Fig. S27. Measurements made over EVD.
  • Fig. S28. In vivo measurements of skin thickness made via radiographic and ultrasound imaging.
  • Table S1. Thermal and geometrical quantities required for quantitative measurement of flow rate.
  • Table S2. Summary of etiology of and measurements made on each patient.
  • Table S3. Raw data measured on each patient.
  • Table S4. Raw data and results from paired t tests for on-shunt and off-shunt measurements for patients with patent shunts.
  • Table S5. Summary of technical challenges and key advancements over the course of patient study.
  • Table S6. Summary of existing shunt diagnostic tools.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Wireless ELA pairing to smartphone app and on-demand actuation.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Experimental system in movie S1.