Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Age of PD onset in individuals with and without a family history of PD in the PPMI data.
  • Fig. S2. An appendectomy delays the age of PD onset in individuals with a family history of PD that is not explained by genetic risk factors of PD.
  • Fig. S3. Validation of proteinase K digestion protocol in the human appendix used to assess aggregated α-synuclein.
  • Fig. S4. Evaluation of α-synuclein proteolysis under different tissue processing conditions.
  • Fig. S5. Extraction of detergent-soluble and -insoluble α-synuclein from appendix and brain tissue.
  • Fig. S6. Active cleavage of α-synuclein in the in vitro shaking assay with appendix tissue lysates.
  • Fig. S7. Effect of protease inhibition on α-synuclein cleavage and aggregation induced by appendix lysates.
  • Fig. S8. Identification of α-synuclein using TD-MS.
  • Fig. S9. Schematic of proposed model for the contributions of the vermiform appendix to PD.
  • Table S1. Characteristics of study samples from the SNPR.
  • Table S2. Appendectomy in relation to age of PD onset for patients with PD in the SNPR study.
  • Table S3. Incidence of PD in males and females living in rural and urban areas, SNPR study.
  • Table S4. Demographic and clinical information of patients with PD in the PPMI.
  • Table S5. Appendectomy in relation to age of PD onset for patients with PD in PPMI.
  • Table S6. PD age of onset is delayed in individuals with an appendectomy but not in individuals with non-GI immune conditions or other surgeries.
  • Table S7. Patients who had an appendectomy 30 or more years before PD do not show changes in PD symptom severity, as measured by the Hoehn and Yahr scale and UPDRS.
  • Table S8. α-Synuclein aggregates are detected in the appendix of both young and older adult individuals and are present in normal and inflamed appendix.
  • Table S9. Demographic and clinical information of sample sets used in PPMI study.
  • Table S10. Appendectomy delays age of PD onset in patients with de novo PD of PPMI.
  • References (9296)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Source data for biochemical assays.