Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Methodological details
  • Fig. S1. Histological examination of TI and LC before and after VDZ.
  • Fig. S2. B cell gating strategy.
  • Fig. S3. CD20 immunostaining of terminal ileal biopsies before and after VDZ.
  • Fig. S4. Change in the frequency of Ki67+ cells in GI tissue.
  • Fig. S5. Representative image of apoptotic bodies.
  • Fig. S6. CD4 quantification in biopsies of the TI and LC.
  • Fig. S7. Representative flow cytometry plots of showing the expression of α4β7 on naïve and memory CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood of a healthy volunteer.
  • Fig. S8. Masking of α4β7 by VDZ and β7 as a surrogate marker of α4β7+ cells.
  • Fig. S9. Change in the frequency of CD4+ T cells subsets in circulation after VDZ.
  • Fig. S10. Expression of integrin α4 and αE on β7+ memory CD4+ T cells.
  • Fig. S11. Gating strategy to define the frequency of CD38+ “activated” CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the GI tract.
  • Fig. S12. Change in the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+HLA-DR+CD38+ cells in circulation.
  • Fig. S13. Gating strategy for identifying NK cells.
  • Fig. S14. HLA-DR expression on cytolytic CD56dimCD16high NK cells.
  • Fig. S15. Impact of collagenase digestion on the frequency of intestinal CD4+ T cells.
  • Table S1. IBD-related clinical characteristics.
  • Table S2. Clinical characteristics of the healthy volunteers.
  • Table S3. HIV control cohort: Clinical characteristics.
  • Table S4. Flow cytometry antibodies.
  • Table S5. List of CyTOF reagents.
  • References (65, 66)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Table S6 (Microsoft Excel format). Primary data.