Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Material for:

Battery-free, wireless sensors for full-body pressure and temperature mapping

Seungyong Han, Jeonghyun Kim, Sang Min Won, Yinji Ma, Daeshik Kang, Zhaoqian Xie, Kyu-Tae Lee, Ha Uk Chung, Anthony Banks, Seunghwan Min, Seung Yun Heo, Charles R. Davies, Jung Woo Lee, Chi-Hwan Lee, Bong Hoon Kim, Kan Li, Yadong Zhou, Chen Wei, Xue Feng, Yonggang Huang,* John A. Rogers*

*Corresponding author. Email: y-huang{at}northwestern.edu (Y.H.); jrogers{at}northwestern.edu (J.A.R.)

Published 4 April 2018, Sci. Transl. Med. 10, eaan4950 (2018)
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aan4950

This PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Process for calibrating the temperature sensors.
  • Fig. S2. Operation of calibrated wireless temperature sensors during rapid changes in temperature, with comparison to results obtained using an IR camera.
  • Fig. S3. Thermal FEA results as a function of thickness of the bottom PDMS layer.
  • Fig. S4. Photograph and structure schematic of silicon membrane, with comparison of pressure sensors with different shapes using FEA.
  • Fig. S5. Mechanism of strain generation in the sensor under uniform normal pressure.
  • Fig. S6. Effect of bending on the pressure sensor.
  • Fig. S7. Characterization of the boron-doped silicon pressure module.
  • Fig. S8. Screen view of temperature monitoring with a smartphone application in real time.
  • Fig. S9. Measurements of the effect of orientation under three power settings and representative positions.
  • Fig. S10. Measurements of operating distance for sensors placed at various locations inside each antenna with different power levels.
  • Fig. S11. Distributions of the magnetic field along the vertical direction for constant power (12 W) and different antenna sizes.
  • Fig. S12. Simulation of field strength of different antenna sizes and multiplexed operation.
  • Fig. S13. Embedded antenna setup for sleep studies at Carle Hospital.
  • Fig. S14. Results of sleep studies conducted with arrays of temperature sensors on the front of the body.
  • Fig. S15. Results of sleep studies conducted with arrays of temperature sensors on the back of the body.
  • Fig. S16. Color heat maps of the entire body constructed from temperature data collected using NFC sensors.
  • Fig. S17. Results of the sensors’ lifetime during 3 days of continuous wear.
  • Fig. S18. Results of wirelessly recorded data obtained while lying at a supine angle of 30°.
  • Fig. S19. Graphs of pressure measurements in a hospital bed while lying at a supine angle of 0° (data with individual sensor).
  • Fig. S20. Graphs of pressure measurements obtained in a hospital bed while lying at a supine angle of 30° (data with individual sensor).
  • Fig. S21. Graphs of pressure measurements obtained in a hospital bed while lying at a supine angle of 60° (data with individual sensor).
  • Fig. S22. Summary of comparative studies of temperature measurements in a clinical sleep laboratory: first night.
  • Fig. S23. Summary of the experimental setup and data collected in comparative studies of temperature measurements in a clinical sleep laboratory: second night.
  • Fig. S24. Demonstration of a gate-type reader system and antenna.
  • Fig. S25. Strain distributions at the silicon layer induced by local pressure.
  • Fig. S26. Measurements of response time obtained using a vibrating actuator stage and a function generator.
  • Fig. S27. Mechanical response of an encapsulated sensor on a phantom skin under stretching, bending, and twisting.
  • Legends for movies S1 and S2

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.avi format). Recordings from a single sensor captured using NFC between an epidermal device and a smartphone through a prosthetic.
  • Movie S2 (.avi format). Recordings from four sensors simultaneously using a large-scale (800 mm × 580 mm × 400 mm) RF antenna through a prosthetic.

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