Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Material for:

A miRNA181a/NFAT5 axis links impaired T cell tolerance induction with autoimmune type 1 diabetes

Isabelle Serr, Martin G. Scherm, Adam M. Zahm, Jonathan Schug, Victoria K. Flynn, Markus Hippich, Stefanie Kälin, Maike Becker, Peter Achenbach, Alexei Nikolaev, Katharina Gerlach, Nicole Liebsch, Brigitta Loretz, Claus-Michael Lehr, Benedikt Kirchner, Melanie Spornraft, Bettina Haase, James Segars, Christoph Küper, Ralf Palmisano, Ari Waisman, Richard A. Willis, Wan-Uk Kim, Benno Weigmann, Klaus H. Kaestner, Anette-Gabriele Ziegler, Carolin Daniel*

*Corresponding author. Email: carolin.daniel{at}

Published 3 January 2018, Sci. Transl. Med. 10, eaag1782 (2018)
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aag1782

This PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Categories of human islet autoimmunity in children at risk of developing TD1.
  • Fig. S2. Identification of insulin-specific Tregs after Treg induction assays in vitro.
  • Fig. S3. Insulin-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation in accordance with the duration of islet autoimmunity.
  • Fig. S4. miR181a-targeted signaling pathways in CD4+ T cells.
  • Fig. S5. Nanoparticle-mediated miRNA uptake in CD4+ T cells.
  • Fig. S6. Nfat5 and Foxo1 expression upon TCR stimulation and increasing doses of costimulation.
  • Fig. S7. DNA methylation analysis of the human FOXP3 TSDR in in vitro– induced Tregs.
  • Fig. S8. NFAT5 and PTEN protein expression in CD4+ T cells of NOD mice.
  • Fig. S9. Hypertonicity-independent NFAT5 induction in CD4+ T cells of IAA+NOD mice.
  • Fig. S10. Pten and Foxo1 expression in CD4+ T cells from NFAT5ko mice.
  • Fig. S11. Treg frequencies after in vitro induction using CD4+ T cells from NFAT5ko animals.
  • Fig. S12. Nfat5 and Foxo1 expression in CD4+ T cells of PTEN Tg mice.
  • Fig. S13. Effect of an miRNA181a antagomir or mimic on Treg induction from PTEN Tg mice with decreasing anti-CD28 stimulation.
  • Fig. S14. Effect of NFAT5 inhibition in CD4+ T cells from humanized NSG mice or from PTEN Tg mice in vivo.
  • Fig. S15. Reduction of immune activation by blocking miRNA181a or NFAT5 in NOD mice.
  • References (4654)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Table S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Primary source data.