Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Material for:

Closed-loop neuromodulation of spinal sensorimotor circuits controls refined locomotion after complete spinal cord injury

Nikolaus Wenger, Eduardo Martin Moraud, Stanisa Raspopovic, Marco Bonizzato, Jack DiGiovanna, Pavel Musienko, Manfred Morari, Silvestro Micera, Grégoire Courtine*

*Corresponding author. E-mail: gregoire.courtine{at}

Published 24 September 2014, Sci. Transl. Med. 6, 255ra133 (2014)
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3008325

This PDF file includes:

  • Methods
  • Fig. S1. Completeness of the SCI.
  • Fig. S2. Modulation of EES frequency tunes multiple aspects of gait patterns.
  • Fig. S3. Modulation of EES frequency tunes mono- and polysynaptic responses in flexor and extensor muscle during locomotion.
  • Fig. S4. Real-time monitoring and control platform.
  • Fig. S5. High-fidelity control of complex foot trajectory.
  • Fig. S6. Execution along staircases of various heights and lengths.
  • Table S1. List of computed kinematic, kinetic, and EMG parameters.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S4

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.avi format). Real-time monitoring and control platform.
  • Movie S2 (.avi format). Closed-loop neuromodulation achieves high-fidelity control of leg movements.
  • Movie S3 (.avi format). Closed-loop neuromodulation prevents rapid fatigue during continuous locomotion.
  • Movie S4 (.avi format). Closed-loop neuromodulation enables locomotion across staircases.

[Download Movies S1 to S4]