Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Material for:

COX-2 Inhibition Potentiates Antiangiogenic Cancer Therapy and Prevents Metastasis in Preclinical Models

Lihong Xu, Janine Stevens, Mary Beth Hilton, Steven Seaman, Thomas P. Conrads, Timothy D. Veenstra, Daniel Logsdon, Holly Morris, Deborah A. Swing, Nimit L. Patel, Joseph Kalen, Diana C. Haines, Enrique Zudaire, Brad St. Croix*

*Corresponding author. E-mail:

Published 25 June 2014, Sci. Transl. Med. 6, 242ra84(2014)
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3008455

This PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Tumor volume does not correlate with VEGF expression in CT26 clones.
  • Fig. S2. CD45-positive inflammatory cells enter the cornea via newly formed vascular loops.
  • Fig. S3. PGE2 and PGA2 are the CT26-produced factors responsible for the calcium flux in reporter cells.
  • Fig. S4. Stable expression of COX-2 in clone 3 and clone 4 results in elevated COX-2 levels.
  • Fig. S5. COX-2 selectively up-regulates PGE2 without affecting prostanoid mRNA expression.
  • Fig. S6. COX-2 regulates PGE2 expression in CT26 tumors in vivo.
  • Fig. S7. PGE2 stimulates angiogenesis in vivo.
  • Fig. S8. VEGFR2 antibodies cannot block COX-2–induced angiogenesis.
  • Fig. S9. HCT/VKO-VEGF tumors express a high amount of VEGF in vivo.
  • Fig. S10. COX-2 selectively regulates PGE2 expression in HCT116 tumors in vivo.
  • Fig. S11. VEGFR2 antibodies and celecoxib both reduce CT26-induced tumor angiogenesis.
  • Fig. S12. VEGFR and COX-2 inhibition reduces tumor angiogenesis and blocks colon cancer metastasis.
  • Fig. S13. PGE2 expression is reduced in 4T1-luc cells after treatment with celecoxib.
  • Fig. S14. Whole-body luciferase imaging detects tumor burden in mice.
  • Fig. S15. Food consumption is unaltered in mice treated with axitinib and celecoxib.
  • Fig. S16. Metastases are undetectable in long-term survivors treated with combined axitinib/celecoxib therapy.
  • Legend for table S1
  • Table S2. List of primers.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Table S1. Original data for graphs that show composite results (provided as a separate Excel file).