Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Materials for:

A Paravascular Pathway Facilitates CSF Flow Through the Brain Parenchyma and the Clearance of Interstitial Solutes, Including Amyloid β

Jeffrey J. Iliff,* Minghuan Wang, Yonghong Liao, Benjamin A. Plogg, Weiguo Peng, Georg A. Gundersen, Helene Benveniste, G. Edward Vates, Rashid Deane, Steven A. Goldman, Erlend A. Nagelhus, Maiken Nedergaard*

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jeffrey_iliff{at}urmc.rochester.edu (J.J.I.); nedergaard{at}urmc.rochester.edu (M.N.)

Published 15 August 2012, Sci. Transl. Med. 4, 147ra111 (2012)
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3003748

This PDF file includes:

  1. Methods
  2. Fig. S1. Quantification of fluorescent CSF tracer distribution within the brain parenchyma.
  3. Fig. S2. Measurement of subarachnoid CSF entry into the brain parenchyma.
  4. Fig. S3. In vivo imaging of para-arterial influx of small– and large–molecular weight tracers.
  5. Fig. S4. CSF does not enter the brain parenchyma along paravenous pathways.
  6. Fig. S5. Intracisternally and intraparenchymally injected tracer shares the same paravenous drainage pathway.
  7. Fig. S6. Visualization of paravascular accumulation of tracer and the Virchow-Robin space in wild-type and Aqp4-null mice.
  8. Fig. S7. Differential expression of AQP4 in periarterial versus perivenous astrocytes.
  9. Fig. S8. Measurement of interstitial solute clearance from the brain.
  10. Fig. S9. Schematic diagram of paravascular and interstitial bulk flow pathways.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  1. Movie S1 (.avi format). Direct visualization of para-arterial influx of subarachnoid CSF tracer into the brain parenchyma.
  2. Movie S2 (.mov format). Animation depicting the role of paravascular CSF influx in interstitial solute clearance from the brain.